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Gujarati Bhasha Sahitya Pratham Krutio Video

Gujarati Bhasha Sahitya Pratham Krutio Video

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Gujarati Bhasha Sahitya Pratham Krutio Video Useful For GPSC, UPSC, NET, TET, HTET, TAT, TAT, Clerk, Talati State Government of Gujarat Jobs Exam Useful. 

Such factors as the policies of the rulers, the living style of the people, and the worldwide influence on society are important for any literature to flourish. In Gujarat, due to the development of trade and commerce, the religious influence of Jainism as well as Hinduism, and also due to the safety and encouragement of rulers like Siddhraj, Chaulukya(Solanki) and Vaghela Rajputs, literary activities were in full force from the 11th century.

  • Gujarati literature
    • Early literature (up to 1450 AD)
      • Prāg-Narsinh Yug (1000 AD to 1450 AD)
        • Rāsa Yug
    • Medieval literature (1450 AD-1850 AD)
      • Narsinh Yug (1450 AD to 1850 AD)
        • Bhakti Yug
          • Saguṇ Bhakti Yug
          • Nirguṇ Bhakti Yug
    • Modern literature (1850 AD to date)
      • Sudhārak Yug or Narmad Yug (1850-1885 AD)
      • Paṇḍit Yug or Govardhan Yug (1885-1915 AD)
      • Gandhi Yug (1915-1945 AD)
      • Anu-Ghandhi Yug (1940-1955 AD)
      • Ādhunik Yug (1955-1985 AD)
      • Anu-Ādunik Yug (1985 - to date)
Literature in Gujarati is sometimes also classified into two broad categories, namely poetry and prose, the former savouring and basking in its long lineage, dating back to the 6th century. Poetry as a perception was a medium for expressing religious beliefs and judgements, a stronghold of medieval Indian times. In this context of gradual evolution, the history of Gujarati literature is generally classed into three broad periods, consisting of the Early period (up to c. 1450 AD), the Middle period (1450 to 1850 AD) and the Modern period (1850 AD. onwards). However, Gujarati literature and its tremendous maturation and proficiency in contributing to culture is retraced back to sultanate days (referring to the Muzaffarid dynasty, which had provided the sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583).
Gujarati literature is divided mainly into three eras or Yugs; the early, medieval and modern, with these eras being further subdivided.
The early era (up to 1450 AD) and medieval era ( 1450 AD - 1850 AD) are divided into 'before Narsinh' and 'after Narsinh' periods sometimes. Some scholars divide this period as 'Rāsa yug', 'Saguṇ Bhakti yug' and 'Nirguṇ Bhakti yug' also.
The modern era (1850 AD to date) is divided into 'Sudhārak Yug' or 'Narmad Yug', 'Paṇḍit Yug' or 'Govardhan Yug', 'Gandhi Yug', 'Anu-Gandhi Yug', 'Ādhunik Yug' and 'Anu-Ādunik Yug'.

Prāchin Sāhitya (Early literature)[edit]

  • Prāg Narsinh-Yug (1000 AD to 1450 AD)
The Jain monk and scholar Hemacandrācārya suri was one of the earliest scholars of Prakrit and Apabhramsha grammars and the mother of the Gujarati language. He had penned a formal set of 'grammarian principles' as the harbinger of the Gujarati language during the reign of the Chaulukya king Siddharaj Jaisinh of Anhilwara. This treatise formed the cornerstone of Apabhramsa grammar in the Gujarati language, establishing a language from a combination of corrupted forms of languages like Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi. He authored "Kavyanushasana": poetics, a handbook or manual of poetry, "Siddha-haima-shabdanushasana": Prakrit and Apabhramsha grammars, and "Desinamamala": a list of words of local origin.
It is generally accepted by historians and researchers in literary genres in Gujarati literature that the earliest writings in this very ancient language were by Jaina authors. These were composed in the form of RāsasPhāgus and Vilāsas. Rāsas were long poems which were essentially heroic, romantic or narrative in nature. Śālībhadra Sūri's "Bharateśvara Bāhubalī rāsa (ભરતેશ્વર બાહુબલી રાસ)" (1185 AD), Vijayasena's "Revantagiri-rāsa (રેવંતગિરિ રાસ)" (1235 AD), Ambadeva's "Samararasa" (1315 AD) and Vinayaprabha's "Gautama Svāmirāsa" (1356 AD) are the most illustrious examples of this form of literature in Gujarati. Other notable Prabandha or narrative poems of this period include Śrīdhara's "Raṇamalla Chhanda" (1398 AD), Merutunga's "Prabodhachintamani", Padmanābha's "Kānhaḍade Prabandha (કાન્હડદે પ્રબંધ)" (1456 AD) and Bhīma's "Sadayavatsa Kathā" (1410 AD). The phāgus are poems that pictured the blissful and cheery nature of the spring festival (Vasanta). Rājasekhara's "Neminatha-phagu" (1344 AD) and Ajnat (Unknown) Kavi's "Vasanta-vilāsa" (1350 AD) are unsurpassed instances of such texts. "Neminātha Chatuṣpadika" (1140 AD) by Vinayacandra is the oldest of the bāramāsi genre of Gujarati poems. The earliest work in Gujarati prose was Taruṇaprabha's "Balavabodha" (1355 AD). "Prithvichandra Charita" (1422 AD) of Manikyasundara, which essentially served as a religious romance, is the most paramount illustration of Old Gujarati prose and is reminiscent of Bāṇabhaṭṭa's Kadambari.
Due to flourishing trade and commerce in Ahmedabad and Khambat (Cambay), entertainment activities started to develop, and the Jain saints, story-tellers, puppet shows, and Bhavai (dramas) also revived literature. This gave birth to ancient literature and the 11th century noted poet Hemacandra (1088–1172).

  • Narsinh-Yug (1450 AD - 1850 AD)
During the 15th century, Gujarati literature had come under the tremendous sway of the Bhakti movement, a popular cultural movement to liberate religion from entrenched priesthood. Narsinh Mehta (1415-1481 A.D.) was the foremost poet of this era. His poems delineated a very saintly and mystical sense and bore an intense reflection of the philosophy of Advaita. Narasinh Mehta's "Govind Gaman", "Surat Sangram", "Sudama Charitra" and "Sringaramala" are illustrations of this devotional poetry.
  • 'Bhakti-Yug (15th-19th century)
During this age, Jain and Hindu poets produced Gujarat literature in abundance. The prose and poetry created were aimed to encourage religion and worship. Hindu texts such as Gita, Mahabharat, Vedas, and Bhagvat became popular. There were also creations of prayers, Jain history, etc. During this period of the influence of the Bhakti Movement on Gujarati literature, the Ramayana, the Bhagavad Gita, the Yogavashistha and the Panchatantra were all translated into Gujarati. This period also experienced the colossal Puranic revival, which led to the rapid growth and maturation of devotional poetry in Gujarati literature. This era is divided into two parts, "Sagun Bhakti Dhara" and "Nirgun Bhakti Dhara".
  • "Sagun Bhakti Dhara"
In this "Dhara", the God is worshiped in physical form, having some form and virtues like Ram and Krishna.
Narsinh Mehta, Meera, and Dayaram were foremost contributors of this "Dhara". Bhalan (1434-1514 AD) had furnished a meritorious representation of Bāṇabhaṭṭa's "Kadambari" into Gujarati. Bhalana composed other substantial and irreplaceable works like "Dasham Skandha", "Nalakhyan", "Ramabal Charitra" and "Chandi Akhyana". Meera supplied many "Pada" (Verse). Premanand Bhatt, who is deemed the most important of all Gujarati poets, was absolutely involved in taking and elevating the Gujarati language and literature to new peaks. Amongst Premananda Bhatta's umpteen authorships, the most crucial are "Okha Harana", "Nalakhyana, "Abhimanyu Akhyana", "Dasham Skandha", and "Sudama Charitra".
Shamal Bhatt was an extremely creative and productive poet who gave birth to unforgettable works like "Padmavati", "Batris Putli", "Nanda Batrisi", "Sinhasan Batrisi" and "Madana Mohan" in Gujarati verse writing. Dayaram (1767–1852) had given rise to religious, ethical and romantic lyrics referred to as 'Garbi'. His most authoritative works comprise "Bhakti Poshan", "Rasik Vallabh" and "Ajamel Akhyan". The "Ramayana" was authored by Giridhara in Gujarati during the middle of the 19th century. Parmanand, Brahmanand, Vallabha, Haridas, Ranchhod and Divali Bai were other authoritative 'saint poets' from this period of poetry predomination in Gujarati literature. Poets from the Swaminarayan sect contributed immensely.
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Whatsapp report Generate: जानिए अपनी कौन कौन सी Information Whatsap के पास हे

Whatsapp report Generate: जानिए अपनी कौन कौन सी Information  Whatsap के पास हे 


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DOCUMENTS, Document Sharing Made Easy, Send PDFs, documents, spreadsheets, slideshows and more, without the hassle of email or file sharing apps. You can send documents up to 100 MB, so it's easy to get what you need over to who you want. VOICE MESSAGES, Say What's On Your Mind, Sometimes, your voice says it all. With just one tap you can record a Voice Message, perfect for a quick hello or a longer story.
WhatsApp Payments, WhatsApp Payments is a peer to peer money transfer feature that is set to launch in India. WhatsApp has received permission from the National Payments Corporation of India(NPCI) to enter into partnership with multiple banks in July, 2017[128] to allow users to make in-app payments and money transfers using the Unified Payments Interface (UPI).[129]UPI enables account-to-account transfers from a mobile app without having any details of the beneficiary's bank.[130]
User statistics, As of April 22, 2014, WhatsApp had over 500 million monthly active users, 700 million photos and 100 million videos were being shared daily, and the messaging system was handling more than 10 billion messages each day.[157][158]
On August 24, 2014, Koum announced on his Twitter account that WhatsApp had over 600 million active users worldwide. At that point WhatsApp was adding about 25 million new users every month, or 833,000 active users per day.[65][159] With 65 million active users representing 10% of the total worldwide users, India has the largest number of consumers.[160]
On May 2017,it was reported that whatsapp users have spend an average of 646 years on video calls[161] which is approximately 340 million minutes of video calls everyday on the app.
As of February 2017, WhatsApp has over 1.2 billion users globally.[162]
Israel is one of WhatsApp's strongest markets in terms of penetration. According to Globes, already by 2013 the application was installed on 92% of all smartphones, with 86% of users reporting daily use.[163] WhatsApp's group chat feature is reportedly used by many Israeli families to stay in contact with each other.[164]
 Users in India, In May 2014, WhatsApp crossed 50 million monthly active users in India, which is also its largest country by the number of monthly active users.[165] In October 2014, WhatsApp crossed 70 million monthly active users in India, which is 10% of its total user base (700 MM).[166] In February 2017, WhatsApp crossed 200 million monthly active users in India.[167] Competition : WhatsApp competes with a number of Asian-based messaging services (that as of 2014, were services like WeChat (468 million active users), Viber (209 million active users[168]) and LINE (170 million active users[169])), WhatsApp handled ten billion messages per day in August 2012,[170] growing from two billion in April 2012,[171] and one billion the previous October.[172] On June 13, 2013, WhatsApp announced that they had reached their new daily record by processing 27 billion messages.[173] According to the Financial Times, WhatsApp "has done to SMS on mobile phones what Skype did to international calling on landlines."[174]






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WhatsApp New Features Group Setting


WhatsApp New Features Group Setting



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Whatsapp New Features Group Setting, Only Admin can Change of Group information, Group icon, Group name, Admins Feature this is. END-TO-END ENCRYPTION. Security by Default Some of your most personal moments are shared on WhatsApp, which is why we built end-to-end encryption into the latest versions of our app. When end-to-end encrypted, your messages and calls are secured so only you and the person you're communicating with can read or listen to them, and nobody in between, not even WhatsApp.
PHOTOS AND VIDEOS Share Moments that Matter Send photos and videos on WhatsApp instantly. You can even capture the moments that matter to you most with a built-in camera. With WhatsApp, photos and videos send quickly even if you're on a slow connection.

WhatsApp was officially made available for PCs through a web client, under the name WhatsApp Web, in late January 2015 through an announcement made by Koum on his Facebook page: "Our web client is simply an extension of your phone: the web browser mirrors conversations and messages from your mobile device—this means all of your messages still live on your phone". The WhatsApp user's handset must still be connected to the Internet for the browser application to function. All major desktop browsers are supported except for Microsoft Internet Explorer. WhatsApp Web's user interface is based on the default Android one.
As of January 21, 2015, the desktop version was only available to Android, BlackBerry and Windows Phone users. Later on, it also added support for iOS, Nokia Series 40, and Nokia S60 (Symbian).[100][101]
An unofficial derivative called WhatsAppTime has been developed, which is a standard Win32 application for PCs and supports notifications through the Windows notification area.[102] There are similar solutions for macOS, such as the open-source ChitChat[103][104][105] and multiple wrappers available in the App Store.[citation needed]
Windows and Mac
On May 10, 2016, the messaging service was introduced for both Windows and macOS operating systems. WhatsApp currently does not allow audio or video calling from desktop operating systems. Similar to the WhatsApp Web format, the app, which will be synced with a user's mobile device, is available for download on the website. It supports OS versions of Windows 8 and OS X 10.9 and higher.






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WhatsApp New Features Group Description Setting


WhatsApp New Features Group Description Setting


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TEXTS Simple, Reliable Messaging Message your friends and family for free*. WhatsApp uses your phone's Internet connection to send messages so you can avoid SMS fees. WHATSAPP ON WEB AND DESKTOP  Keep the Conversation GoingWith WhatsApp on the web and desktop, you can seamlessly sync all of your chats to your computer so that you can chat on whatever device is most convenient for you. Download the desktop app or visit web.whatsapp.com to get started. WHATSAPP VOICE AND VIDEO CALLS Speak Freely. With voice calls, you can talk to your friends and family for free*, even if they're in another country. And with free* video calls, you can have face-to-face conversations for when voice or text just isn't enough. WhatsApp voice and video calls use your phone's Internet connection, instead of your cell plan's voice minutes, so you don't have to worry about expensive calling charges.
* Data charges may apply. Contact your provider for details.

On January 18, 2016, WhatsApp's founder Jan Koum announced that the service would no longer charge their users a $1 annual subscription fee in an effort to remove a barrier faced by some users who do not have a credit card to pay for the service.[33][34] He also explained that the app would not display any third party advertisement and instead would bring new features such as the ability to communicate with business organizations.[71][75]
By June 2016, more than 100 million voice calls are made per day on WhatsApp according to a post on the company's blog.[76]
On November 10, 2016, WhatsApp launched a two-step verification feature in beta for Android users. After enabling this feature, users can add their email address for further protection.[77] Also in November 2016, Facebook ceased collecting WhatsApp data for advertising in Europe.[78]
On February 24, 2017, (WhatsApp's 8th birthday) WhatsApp launched a new Status feature similar to Snapchat and Facebook stories.[79]
On May 18, 2017, it was reported that the European Commission was fining Facebook €110 million for "misleading" it during the 2014 takeover of WhatsApp. The Commission alleged that in 2014, when Facebook acquired the messaging app, it "falsely claimed it was technically impossible to automatically combine user information from Facebook and WhatsApp." However, in the summer of 2016 WhatsApp had begun sharing user information with its parent company, allowing information such as phone numbers to be used for targeted Facebook advertisements. Facebook acknowledged the breach, but said the errors in their 2014 filings were "not intentional."[78]
In September 2017 WhatsApp announced a forthcoming business platform which will enable companies to provide customer service to users at scale.[42] Airlines KLM and Aeroméxico both announced their participation in the testing;[80][81][82][83] Both airlines had previously launched customer services on the Facebook Messenger platform.
In January 2018, WhatsApp launched WhatsApp Business for small business use.[84]

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