Showing posts with label Gujarati. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Gujarati. Show all posts

Gujarati Language Learn

Gujarati  Language Learn ,  न म ग ज Steps, Upacharatm Kary, Mission Vidhya Useful File, Upacharatmak Pragati Patrak Mission Vidhya Student Mulyakan  Patrak Format, Evaluation Patrak Mission Vidhya. Very useful PDF File Created Boarpada Primary School Taluka Kaprda Dist Valsad.   

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Gujarati Language

  • न म ग ज Steps
  • Upacharatmak Kary Pragati Patrak
  • PDF File
  • Date vise Evolution 
  • Priya Vidhyarthi Pargarti Patatk
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  • न म ग ज Steps
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Gujarati Language

Remedial education also known as developmental education, basic skills education, compensatory education, preparatory education, and academic upgrading) is assigned to assist students in order to achieve expected competencies in core academic skills such as literacy and numeracy.

Whereas special education is designed specifically for students with special needs, remedial education can be designed for any students, with or without special needs; the defining trait is simply that they have reached a point of underpreparedness, regardless of why. For example, even people of high intelligence can be underprepared if their education was disrupted, for example, by internal displacement during civil disorder or a war.

While remedial programmes are common in the United States, they are less common in Europe. Nevertheless, several European higher education institutes have started to offer remedial education programmes as well. One of the reasons why European universities are starting to develop remedial courses is the different situation in the two continents. In the United States, a common assumption is that remediation attracts underprepared students of low socioeconomic status. Inadequate academic preparation is no longer a barrier to college access. In contrast, in Europe, a large part of the transitional problems are caused by differences among national secondary educational programmes, which are determined on a national level.Therefore, these students are hindered to effectively start a bachelor or master programme. Remedial or developmental courses can help to bridge the gap.

न म ग ज Steps

European Framework of Transitional Preparatory/Remedial Teaching To be able to compare and assess various preparatory courses in Europe, a European framework of transitional courses is necessary. By developing European Framework for Transitional Preparatory Courses (EFTPC), teachers around Europe can see how their design of their courses fit with the framework. In addition, potential improvements are identified and can be extended with the insights from the field. By using the WIKI technology, each teacher can add his/her suggestions to the EFTPC. This Framework is being developed in frame of European project STEP (Studies on Transitional Electronic Programmes). All information about Remedial Education it is from Wikipedia sit.

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न म ग ज Steps

STD 6 to 8 Gujarati PDF File of Sabd Samuh Mate Ek Sabd

STD 6 to 8 Gujarati PDF file of Sabd Samuh Mate Ek Sabd | Gujarati language is very popular language in Gujarat and out of state. here is Useful file for STD 6 to 8 Gujarati Sabd Samuh Mate Ek Sabd. Also useful for Competitive exam like GPSC, Clerk, Talti etc. This File Created By Bhartbhai L Chauhan (O-kanha) Here is Semester 1 Guajrati All Sabd Samuh in this Pdf File. 

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Distribution of native Gujarati speakers in India Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat. It is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati (circa 1100–1500 AD). In India, it is the official language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. As of 2001, Gujarati is the 7th most widely spoken language in India by number of native speakers, spoken by 4.48% of the Indian population which amounts to 46.09 million speakers in India.It is the 26th most widely spoken language in the world by number of native speakers.

Essay Writing Gujarati, Hindi, English

The Gujarati language is more than 700 years old and is spoken by more than 55 million people worldwide.Gujarati is spoken in many countries outside India, including United States,, United Kingdom, Kenya, Pakistan, Uganda, South Africa, Canada, Australia, China, Bahrain, Singapore, Tanzania,, and Zambia.

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Gujarati Test PDF File STD- 5 To 8 Semester-1 With Answer Key

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All Unit Gujarati Test PDF File STD-5 to 8 Semester - 1 With Answer Key  : Semester 1 STD 5, 6, 7, 8 Gujarati Subject SCE Evaluation Mulyakan Test Online PDF File on My blog With Answer Key. All Test in One  PDF File is Very Useful PDF file For Teacher And Student too.

Multi-level tests, such as Linguaskill, BULATS, the Cambridge English Placement Test and the Cambridge English Placement Test for Young Learners, cover multiple levels of the CEFR in one test. They are used to find out the levels of mixed-ability groups of students, and place them on the right English learning programmes or enter them for the right exams.

Cambridge Assessment English is also the producer of IELTS. The organisation produces IELTS resources and materials to help learners prepare and practice for their tests. IELTS is managed by an international partnership of not-for profit organisations – the British Council, Cambridge Assessment English and IDP: IELTS Australi The first Cambridge English exam
In 1913 UCLES created the first exam for non-native speakers of English – the Certificate of Proficiency in English  This may have been prompted by the development of English exams ‘for foreigners’ by other universities.

CPE was originally a qualification for teachers: ‘the Certificate of Proficiency in English is designed for Foreign Students who desire satisfactory proof of their knowledge of the language with a view to teaching it in foreign schools.’ The exam was only available for candidates aged 20 or over.

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Such factors as the policies of the rulers, the living style of the people, and the worldwide influence on society are important for any literature to flourish. In Gujarat, due to the development of trade and commerce, the religious influence of Jainism as well as Hinduism, and also due to the safety and encouragement of rulers like Siddhraj, Chaulukya(Solanki) and Vaghela Rajputs, literary activities were in full force from the 11th century.

  • Gujarati literature
    • Early literature (up to 1450 AD)
      • Prāg-Narsinh Yug (1000 AD to 1450 AD)
        • Rāsa Yug
    • Medieval literature (1450 AD-1850 AD)
      • Narsinh Yug (1450 AD to 1850 AD)
        • Bhakti Yug
          • Saguṇ Bhakti Yug
          • Nirguṇ Bhakti Yug
    • Modern literature (1850 AD to date)
      • Sudhārak Yug or Narmad Yug (1850-1885 AD)
      • Paṇḍit Yug or Govardhan Yug (1885-1915 AD)
      • Gandhi Yug (1915-1945 AD)
      • Anu-Ghandhi Yug (1940-1955 AD)
      • Ādhunik Yug (1955-1985 AD)
      • Anu-Ādunik Yug (1985 - to date)
Literature in Gujarati is sometimes also classified into two broad categories, namely poetry and prose, the former savouring and basking in its long lineage, dating back to the 6th century. Poetry as a perception was a medium for expressing religious beliefs and judgements, a stronghold of medieval Indian times. In this context of gradual evolution, the history of Gujarati literature is generally classed into three broad periods, consisting of the Early period (up to c. 1450 AD), the Middle period (1450 to 1850 AD) and the Modern period (1850 AD. onwards). However, Gujarati literature and its tremendous maturation and proficiency in contributing to culture is retraced back to sultanate days (referring to the Muzaffarid dynasty, which had provided the sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583).
Gujarati literature is divided mainly into three eras or Yugs; the early, medieval and modern, with these eras being further subdivided.
The early era (up to 1450 AD) and medieval era ( 1450 AD - 1850 AD) are divided into 'before Narsinh' and 'after Narsinh' periods sometimes. Some scholars divide this period as 'Rāsa yug', 'Saguṇ Bhakti yug' and 'Nirguṇ Bhakti yug' also.
The modern era (1850 AD to date) is divided into 'Sudhārak Yug' or 'Narmad Yug', 'Paṇḍit Yug' or 'Govardhan Yug', 'Gandhi Yug', 'Anu-Gandhi Yug', 'Ādhunik Yug' and 'Anu-Ādunik Yug'.

Prāchin Sāhitya (Early literature)[edit]

  • Prāg Narsinh-Yug (1000 AD to 1450 AD)
The Jain monk and scholar Hemacandrācārya suri was one of the earliest scholars of Prakrit and Apabhramsha grammars and the mother of the Gujarati language. He had penned a formal set of 'grammarian principles' as the harbinger of the Gujarati language during the reign of the Chaulukya king Siddharaj Jaisinh of Anhilwara. This treatise formed the cornerstone of Apabhramsa grammar in the Gujarati language, establishing a language from a combination of corrupted forms of languages like Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi. He authored "Kavyanushasana": poetics, a handbook or manual of poetry, "Siddha-haima-shabdanushasana": Prakrit and Apabhramsha grammars, and "Desinamamala": a list of words of local origin.
It is generally accepted by historians and researchers in literary genres in Gujarati literature that the earliest writings in this very ancient language were by Jaina authors. These were composed in the form of RāsasPhāgus and Vilāsas. Rāsas were long poems which were essentially heroic, romantic or narrative in nature. Śālībhadra Sūri's "Bharateśvara Bāhubalī rāsa (ભરતેશ્વર બાહુબલી રાસ)" (1185 AD), Vijayasena's "Revantagiri-rāsa (રેવંતગિરિ રાસ)" (1235 AD), Ambadeva's "Samararasa" (1315 AD) and Vinayaprabha's "Gautama Svāmirāsa" (1356 AD) are the most illustrious examples of this form of literature in Gujarati. Other notable Prabandha or narrative poems of this period include Śrīdhara's "Raṇamalla Chhanda" (1398 AD), Merutunga's "Prabodhachintamani", Padmanābha's "Kānhaḍade Prabandha (કાન્હડદે પ્રબંધ)" (1456 AD) and Bhīma's "Sadayavatsa Kathā" (1410 AD). The phāgus are poems that pictured the blissful and cheery nature of the spring festival (Vasanta). Rājasekhara's "Neminatha-phagu" (1344 AD) and Ajnat (Unknown) Kavi's "Vasanta-vilāsa" (1350 AD) are unsurpassed instances of such texts. "Neminātha Chatuṣpadika" (1140 AD) by Vinayacandra is the oldest of the bāramāsi genre of Gujarati poems. The earliest work in Gujarati prose was Taruṇaprabha's "Balavabodha" (1355 AD). "Prithvichandra Charita" (1422 AD) of Manikyasundara, which essentially served as a religious romance, is the most paramount illustration of Old Gujarati prose and is reminiscent of Bāṇabhaṭṭa's Kadambari.
Due to flourishing trade and commerce in Ahmedabad and Khambat (Cambay), entertainment activities started to develop, and the Jain saints, story-tellers, puppet shows, and Bhavai (dramas) also revived literature. This gave birth to ancient literature and the 11th century noted poet Hemacandra (1088–1172).

  • Narsinh-Yug (1450 AD - 1850 AD)
During the 15th century, Gujarati literature had come under the tremendous sway of the Bhakti movement, a popular cultural movement to liberate religion from entrenched priesthood. Narsinh Mehta (1415-1481 A.D.) was the foremost poet of this era. His poems delineated a very saintly and mystical sense and bore an intense reflection of the philosophy of Advaita. Narasinh Mehta's "Govind Gaman", "Surat Sangram", "Sudama Charitra" and "Sringaramala" are illustrations of this devotional poetry.
  • 'Bhakti-Yug (15th-19th century)
During this age, Jain and Hindu poets produced Gujarat literature in abundance. The prose and poetry created were aimed to encourage religion and worship. Hindu texts such as Gita, Mahabharat, Vedas, and Bhagvat became popular. There were also creations of prayers, Jain history, etc. During this period of the influence of the Bhakti Movement on Gujarati literature, the Ramayana, the Bhagavad Gita, the Yogavashistha and the Panchatantra were all translated into Gujarati. This period also experienced the colossal Puranic revival, which led to the rapid growth and maturation of devotional poetry in Gujarati literature. This era is divided into two parts, "Sagun Bhakti Dhara" and "Nirgun Bhakti Dhara".
  • "Sagun Bhakti Dhara"
In this "Dhara", the God is worshiped in physical form, having some form and virtues like Ram and Krishna.
Narsinh Mehta, Meera, and Dayaram were foremost contributors of this "Dhara". Bhalan (1434-1514 AD) had furnished a meritorious representation of Bāṇabhaṭṭa's "Kadambari" into Gujarati. Bhalana composed other substantial and irreplaceable works like "Dasham Skandha", "Nalakhyan", "Ramabal Charitra" and "Chandi Akhyana". Meera supplied many "Pada" (Verse). Premanand Bhatt, who is deemed the most important of all Gujarati poets, was absolutely involved in taking and elevating the Gujarati language and literature to new peaks. Amongst Premananda Bhatta's umpteen authorships, the most crucial are "Okha Harana", "Nalakhyana, "Abhimanyu Akhyana", "Dasham Skandha", and "Sudama Charitra".
Shamal Bhatt was an extremely creative and productive poet who gave birth to unforgettable works like "Padmavati", "Batris Putli", "Nanda Batrisi", "Sinhasan Batrisi" and "Madana Mohan" in Gujarati verse writing. Dayaram (1767–1852) had given rise to religious, ethical and romantic lyrics referred to as 'Garbi'. His most authoritative works comprise "Bhakti Poshan", "Rasik Vallabh" and "Ajamel Akhyan". The "Ramayana" was authored by Giridhara in Gujarati during the middle of the 19th century. Parmanand, Brahmanand, Vallabha, Haridas, Ranchhod and Divali Bai were other authoritative 'saint poets' from this period of poetry predomination in Gujarati literature. Poets from the Swaminarayan sect contributed immensely.
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